Rainbowfishes are a family of small, colorful, freshwater fish that are indigenous to Africa, Australia, Madagascar, New Guinea, and other South Asian Islands. Rainbowfish can vary in size (1" to 6") and belong to the family Melanotaenia, the blue-eyed rainbows to the family Pseudomuglidae, the Rice fish to the family Orziatidae and the Silversides to the family Atherinidae. They inhabit streams, creeks, lakes, and brackish waters. Rainbowfish are normally very active swimmers, and are often very hardy and fit well in many community tanks. Depending on the species, pH requirements can vary from 6.5 to 8.0 and temperatures should be maintained between 25 to 28° C. Good filtration and regular partial water changes are important. With a few exceptions all these fish like medium hard to hard water and the pH on the Alkaline side of neutral. Good water quality is a must and as the quality decreases the coloration on the fish tend to fade and get washed out.

Rainbowfishes have very similar breeding habits, their food requirements are similar, and adapt to a wide range of water chemistry. All are of good-natured temperament and will live harmoniously, more or less, with one another. Rainbowfish is a schooling fish and should be kept in groups consisting of at least six individuals, preferably not less than 10-15. This is not only beneficial for the fish, it is also much more beautiful to look at a large school of shimmering Rainbowfish than one or a few shy individuals that spend most of their time hiding. Keeping several males together will also make them develop more vibrant colors, since they need to compete with each other for female attention. Juveniles often show little of their stunning adult colors. The natural habitat of Rainbowfish is filled with aquatic plants and they will therefore appreciate a planted aquarium with some open space available for these active and energetic fishes to swim around in. A good plant to use is the Java moss as it is native to the region and can also serve as a spawning medium.
Red Rainbowfish (紅蘋果彩虹)
Glossolepis incisus
Boesemann's Rainbowfish (雙色彩虹)
Melanotaenia boesemani
Neon Rainbowfish (電光彩虹)
Melanotaenia praecox
Lake Tebera Rainbowfish (黃金彩虹)
Melanotaenia herbertaxelrodi
Treadfin Rainbowfish (燕子美人)
Iriatherina werneri
Gertrude Rainbowfish (珍珠燕子)
Pseudomugil gertrudae
Forktail Rainbowfish (霓虹燕子)
Pseudomugil furcatus
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